How to cite chicago style?

HotbotBy HotBotUpdated: July 8, 2024
Answer

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a widely-used citation style guide primarily used in the fields of history, literature, and the arts. It provides comprehensive guidelines for formatting and citing sources. This guide will explore the key elements of citing in Chicago style, from general formatting rules to specific examples for various source types.

General Formatting Rules

Chicago style offers two systems for citing sources: the Notes and Bibliography system and the Author-Date system. The choice between the two depends on the discipline and the context of the work.

Notes and Bibliography System

This system is often used in humanities, such as literature, history, and the arts. It involves using footnotes or endnotes to cite sources within the text and a bibliography at the end of the document listing all sources.

  • Footnotes/Endnotes: Each citation corresponds to a superscript number in the text.
  • Bibliography: A comprehensive list of all sources, alphabetically ordered by the author's last name.

Author-Date System

This system is commonly used in the sciences and social sciences. It involves citing sources in-text with the author's last name and the publication year, followed by a reference list at the end of the document.

  • In-Text Citations: Parenthetical citations include the author's last name and the year of publication.
  • Reference List: A list of all sources ordered alphabetically by the author's last name.

Citing Books in Chicago Style

Notes and Bibliography System

When citing a book in the Notes and Bibliography system, you will need to include specific details in both the footnote and the bibliography.

Footnote Example

First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number.

For example:

1. John Doe, History of Time (New York: Time Publishing, 2020), 45.

Bibliography Example

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

For example:

Doe, John. History of Time. New York: Time Publishing, 2020.

Author-Date System

In-Text Citation Example

(Last Name Year, page number)

For example:

(Doe 2020, 45)

Reference List Example

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

For example:

Doe, John. 2020. History of Time. New York: Time Publishing.

Citing Articles in Chicago Style

Notes and Bibliography System

When citing articles, it’s important to differentiate between journal articles, magazine articles, and newspaper articles, as each requires slightly different information.

Journal Article Footnote Example

First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume number, issue number (Year of Publication): page number(s).

For example:

2. Jane Smith, “Exploring the Universe,” Astronomy Journal 15, no. 2 (2021): 150-175.

Journal Article Bibliography Example

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, issue number (Year of Publication): page number(s).

For example:

Smith, Jane. “Exploring the Universe.” Astronomy Journal 15, no. 2 (2021): 150-175.

Author-Date System

In-Text Citation Example

(Last Name Year, page number)

For example:

(Smith 2021, 160)

Reference List Example

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number (issue number): page number(s).

For example:

Smith, Jane. 2021. “Exploring the Universe.” Astronomy Journal 15 (2): 150-175.

Citing Electronic Sources in Chicago Style

With the advent of the internet, citing electronic sources has become increasingly common. Here’s how to do it correctly.

Notes and Bibliography System

When citing websites, e-books, and other online sources, include as much information as possible to help readers locate the source.

Website Footnote Example

First Name Last Name, “Title of Webpage,” Name of Website, last modified Date, URL.

For example:

3. Emily Brown, “Discovering Historical Sites,” History Online, last modified March 15, 2022, http://www.historyonline.com/sites.

Website Bibliography Example

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Last modified Date. URL.

For example:

Brown, Emily. “Discovering Historical Sites.” History Online. Last modified March 15, 2022. http://www.historyonline.com/sites.

Author-Date System

In-Text Citation Example

(Last Name Year)

For example:

(Brown 2022)

Reference List Example

Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Last modified Date. URL.

For example:

Brown, Emily. 2022. “Discovering Historical Sites.” History Online. Last modified March 15, 2022. http://www.historyonline.com/sites.

Citing Other Source Types in Chicago Style

Notes and Bibliography System

Chicago style also provides guidelines for citing various other source types, including films, interviews, and artwork.

Film Footnote Example

Title of Film, directed by Director’s First Name Last Name (original release year; Place of Publication: Publisher, format).

For example:

4. Inception, directed by Christopher Nolan (2010; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., DVD).

Film Bibliography Example

Title of Film. Directed by Director’s First Name Last Name. Original release year; Place of Publication: Publisher, format.

For example:

Inception. Directed by Christopher Nolan. 2010; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., DVD.

Author-Date System

In-Text Citation Example

(Title of Film Year)

For example:

(Inception 2010)

Reference List Example

Title of Film. Year of Original Release. Directed by Director’s First Name Last Name. Place of Publication: Publisher, format.

For example:

Inception. 2010. Directed by Christopher Nolan. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros., DVD.

Rarely Known Details and Tips

Even seasoned writers might overlook some of Chicago style's finer points. Here are a few rarely known details and tips to ensure your citations are impeccable:

  • Multivolume Works: If you're citing a multivolume work, be sure to include the volume number in your citation. For example, "2:345" indicates volume 2, page 345.
  • Shortened Citations: After the first full citation in notes, you can use a shortened form for subsequent references. For example, instead of repeating the full citation, you can write, "Doe, History of Time, 45."
  • DOIs: When available, use DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) for electronic sources instead of URLs for more stable and reliable links.
  • Foreign Language Sources: If you're citing a source in a foreign language, provide a translation of the title in brackets right after the original title.

Remember, attention to detail is crucial when citing sources. The nuances of Chicago style may seem intricate at first, but mastering them will vastly improve the credibility and professionalism of your work.


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