How to make cheese?

HotbotBy HotBotUpdated: June 20, 2024

Introduction to Cheesemaking

Cheesemaking is an ancient craft that has been refined over thousands of years. It involves the coagulation of milk, which is then processed to create a wide variety of cheese types. The fundamental processes are similar across different cheeses, although the specific steps and ingredients can vary significantly.

Ingredients and Equipment

To begin your cheesemaking journey, you will need the following:


  • Milk: Fresh, high-quality milk (cow, goat, or sheep).
  • Starter Culture: Bacteria that acidify the milk.
  • Rennet: An enzyme that coagulates the milk.
  • Salt: For flavor and preservation.


  • Cheesecloth: For draining whey.
  • Thermometer: To monitor milk temperature.
  • Cheese molds: For shaping the cheese.
  • Stirring utensils: Non-reactive materials like stainless steel or plastic.
  • Press: For hard cheeses.

Milk Preparation

The quality of your milk is paramount. Raw milk offers the best flavor, but pasteurized milk can also be used. Avoid ultra-pasteurized milk as it does not coagulate well.

Heating the Milk

Start by heating the milk to the desired temperature for your specific cheese recipe. This usually ranges from 85°F (30°C) to 105°F (40°C). Use a thermometer to ensure accuracy.

Adding Starter Culture and Rennet

Starter Culture

Add the starter culture to the warmed milk. This step introduces beneficial bacteria that will acidify the milk, creating the right environment for coagulation. Stir the milk gently to distribute the culture evenly.


Once the starter culture has been mixed in, add the rennet. This enzyme can be derived from animal sources or be vegetarian. Dilute the rennet in a small amount of cool, non-chlorinated water before adding it to the milk. Stir gently and let the milk sit undisturbed.


The milk will begin to thicken and form a gel-like consistency. This process can take anywhere from 30 minutes to a few hours, depending on the type of cheese and temperature. The milk should form a clean break when a knife is inserted and lifted slightly.

Cutting the Curds

Once the milk has coagulated, it’s time to cut the curds. Use a long knife to cut the curd into small cubes. The size of the curds will affect the texture of the final cheese. Smaller curds lead to a harder cheese, while larger curds produce a softer cheese.

Cooking the Curds

After cutting, gently heat the curds while stirring them slowly. This helps to expel more whey and firm up the curds. The temperature and duration of this step vary depending on the type of cheese you are making.

Draining the Whey

Once the curds have cooked sufficiently, they need to be separated from the whey. Use a cheesecloth-lined colander to drain the whey from the curds. For softer cheeses, this may involve simply letting the curds drain. For harder cheeses, pressing is required.

Molding and Pressing


Transfer the curds into cheese molds. These molds help shape the cheese and allow for further drainage of whey.


For hard cheeses, apply pressure using a cheese press. The amount of pressure and duration will depend on the type of cheese. This step helps to expel remaining whey and compact the curds into a solid mass.


Salt is crucial in cheese making. It adds flavor, acts as a preservative, and helps to control the moisture content.

Direct Salting

For some cheeses, salt is directly added to the curds before molding.


Other cheeses are soaked in a saltwater brine after they have been molded and pressed. The length of time in the brine will vary depending on the cheese type.

Ripening and Aging


Many cheeses require a ripening period where they are stored at a controlled temperature and humidity. During this time, enzymes and bacteria continue to develop the flavor and texture of the cheese.


The aging process can range from a few days to several years. The environment must be monitored to ensure the cheese develops correctly. Factors such as temperature, humidity, and air circulation play crucial roles.

Specialty Cheeses and Techniques

Blue Cheese

Blue cheese involves the introduction of Penicillium roqueforti mold. This mold creates the characteristic blue veins and distinct flavor. The curds are pierced during aging to allow air to enter and promote mold growth.

Washed Rind Cheese

Washed rind cheeses are bathed in a brine or alcohol solution during aging. This encourages the growth of specific bacteria, resulting in a strong aroma and rich flavor.

Common Issues and Troubleshooting

Curds Not Setting

If the curds do not set properly, it could be due to insufficient rennet, incorrect temperature, or poor milk quality. Adjusting these factors can often resolve the issue.

Bitter Flavor

A bitter flavor in cheese can result from over-ripening, excessive rennet, or contamination. Ensuring clean equipment and proper aging conditions can help prevent this.

The art of cheesemaking is a journey filled with experimentation and discovery. With each batch, you gain new insights and refine your techniques, drawing closer to mastering this ancient craft.

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