Where is sudan?

HotbotBy HotBotUpdated: June 24, 2024

Geographical Location

Sudan is located in northeastern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Eritrea and the Red Sea to the northeast, Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. Covering an area of approximately 1.86 million square kilometers, Sudan is the third-largest country in Africa by area, following Algeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Latitudinal and Longitudinal Coordinates

Sudan is situated between latitudes 8° and 23°N and longitudes 21° and 39°E. This positioning places Sudan within the tropical and subtropical zones, influencing its climate and ecological diversity.

Topography and Major Landforms

Sudan's topography is characterized by vast plains and plateaus, with several prominent mountain ranges and deserts. The most notable geographical feature is the Nile River, which traverses the country from south to north, dividing it into eastern and western regions.

The Nile River

The Nile River is Sudan's lifeline, providing water for agriculture, drinking, and transportation. The river is formed by the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile at Khartoum, the capital city. The Blue Nile originates from Lake Tana in Ethiopia, while the White Nile flows from Lake Victoria in Uganda.

Mountain Ranges

Eastern Sudan is home to the Red Sea Hills, with peaks reaching up to 2,259 meters. The Nuba Mountains are located in the southern part of the country, and the Marrah Mountains are in the west, with the highest peak, Deriba Caldera, standing at 3,042 meters.


The northern part of Sudan is dominated by the Nubian Desert, part of the larger Sahara Desert. This arid region features rocky plateaus, sand dunes, and occasional oases.

Climate and Weather Patterns

Sudan's climate varies significantly from north to south due to its extensive latitudinal range. The northern regions experience arid and semi-arid conditions, while the southern areas have a tropical climate.

Northern Sudan

The north is characterized by hot, dry desert conditions, with minimal rainfall and extreme temperature variations between day and night. Summers can see temperatures soaring above 40°C (104°F), while winters are milder but still dry.

Central Sudan

The central region, including Khartoum, has a semi-arid climate with a short rainy season from June to September. Temperatures here are also high, often exceeding 35°C (95°F) during the summer.

Southern Sudan

The southern part of the country experiences a tropical climate with more consistent rainfall throughout the year. The wet season lasts from April to October, and temperatures are generally lower than in the north, averaging around 30°C (86°F).

Historical Context

Sudan's history is rich and complex, influenced by various civilizations, empires, and colonial powers.

Ancient Civilizations

The region now known as Sudan was home to several ancient civilizations, including the Kingdom of Kush, which thrived along the Nile River around 1070 BCE to 350 CE. The Kushites built impressive pyramids and temples, many of which can still be seen today.

Islamic Influence

By the 7th century CE, Islam began to spread into Sudan, significantly impacting the region's culture, language, and governance. Islamic kingdoms such as the Funj Sultanate of Sennar controlled large parts of Sudan from the 16th to the 19th centuries.

Colonial Era

In the late 19th century, Sudan became a target of European colonial ambitions. The British-Egyptian Condominium ruled Sudan from 1899 until the country gained independence in 1956. This period saw significant infrastructural development but also set the stage for future conflicts.

Modern Sudan

Since gaining independence, Sudan has experienced periods of political instability, civil war, and economic challenges.

Conflict and Division

The most notable conflict was the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), which ultimately led to the secession of South Sudan in 2011. This war was primarily driven by ethnic, religious, and economic differences between the north and the south.

Economic Landscape

Sudan's economy is largely based on agriculture, with crops like sorghum, millet, and sesame being key exports. The country also has significant oil reserves, although much of the oil fields are now located in South Sudan.

Cultural Diversity

Sudan is a melting pot of cultures, languages, and traditions, reflecting its diverse population of over 40 million people.


While Arabic is the official language, many other languages are spoken, including Nubian, Beja, Fur, and various Nilotic languages.


Islam is the dominant religion, practiced by around 97% of the population. There are also small communities of Christians and practitioners of indigenous religions.

Traditional Practices

Sudanese culture is rich in music, dance, and oral traditions. Traditional dances like the Nuba dances and the Beja sword dance are integral parts of Sudanese cultural heritage.

Points of Interest

Sudan offers numerous attractions for history buffs, nature enthusiasts, and adventurous travelers.

Archaeological Sites

Meroë, the ancient city of the Kingdom of Kush, is renowned for its well-preserved pyramids. The temples of Naqa and Musawwarat es-Sufra are also significant historical sites.

Natural Wonders

The Red Sea coast offers stunning coral reefs and marine life, making it a popular destination for diving and snorkeling. The Dinder National Park in southeastern Sudan is home to diverse wildlife, including lions, leopards, and various bird species.

Urban Centers

Khartoum, the capital, is a bustling city where the Blue and White Nile rivers meet. Omdurman, part of the Khartoum metropolitan area, is famous for its traditional markets and the tomb of Mahdi, a significant historical figure.

Political Landscape

Sudan's political landscape has been turbulent, marked by coups, civil wars, and ongoing struggles for democracy and human rights.

Recent Developments

In April 2019, long-time president Omar al-Bashir was ousted following months of protests. A transitional government was established, aiming to lead the country towards democratic elections.

International Relations

Sudan's international relations have been shaped by its internal conflicts and economic needs. The country has sought to balance relations with both Western and Eastern powers, including the United States, China, and Gulf countries.

Humanitarian Issues

Sudan faces significant humanitarian challenges, including internal displacement, poverty, and food insecurity. International organizations continue to work towards addressing these issues, but the path to stability remains complex.

Sudan, with its rich history, diverse culture, and varied landscapes, presents a multifaceted portrait that invites deeper exploration and understanding.

Related Questions

Where is sudan located?

Sudan is a country situated in northeastern Africa. It is bordered by several countries: Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. The country spans across latitudes 8° and 23°N and longitudes 21° and 39°E.

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